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Review of the efficacy and safety of over-the-counter codeine combination medicines

A report commissioned by the Therapeutic Goods Administration

24 March 2016


  • Christina Abdel Shaheed BPharm, PhD, The George Institute for Global Health
  • Chris G Maher BAppSc(Phty) PhD, The George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney
  • Andrew McLachlan BPharm PhD, Centre for Education and Research on Ageing, Concord Repatriation General Hospital; Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney


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  • Executive summary
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Methods
  • 1.3 Results Part A: Efficacy
  • 1.4 Discussion
  • 1.5 Conclusion
  • 1.6 Part B: Incremental effectiveness of codeine
  • 1.7 Part C: Harms of codeine combination medicines (narrative review and appended table)
  • References
  • Appendix