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Breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma

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Update - TGA's review of textured breast implants and preliminary outcomes

11 July 2019

This update reflects the TGA's initial views following recent laboratory testing and statistical analysis. Breast implant sponsors have until 24 July to provide additional information which will be assessed before reaching a final decision.

Information is being made available at this stage as people with implants, and those considering implants have the right to make informed choices about their healthcare.

Because BIA-ALCL is rare, experts do not recommend removal of breast implants where there are no problems with the implant.

The breast implant hub has information to support people with any concerns about their implants.

As part of ongoing work regarding breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has completed its review and laboratory assessment of textured breast implants on the Australian market. The review was announced on 3 May 2019 and involved both laboratory testing and statistical analysis of supply information and the known cases of BIA-ALCL to estimate the risks associated for each type of implant.

What is BIA-ALCL and what should you do if you have concerns?

BIA-ALCL usually involves a swelling of the breast, typically 3 to 14 years after the operation to insert the breast implant. This swelling is due to an accumulation of fluid. Less commonly, BIA-ALCL can take the form of a lump in the breast or a lump in the armpit.

It is a rare condition, with expert opinions estimating the published risk of BIA-ALCL at between 1-in-1,000 and 1-in-10,000.

Although fatalities have been recorded, the vast majority of BIA- ALCL are cured by removal of the implant and the capsule surrounding the implant.

If you notice any of these problems (swelling or a lump), or you have any other concerns with your implants, you should seek medical attention.

Because BIA- ALCL is rare, experts do not recommend removal of breast implants where there are no problems with the implant.

Information for consumers about BIA-ALCL, its symptoms and treatments is available on the TGA's breast implant hub.

TGA's proposed regulatory action – textured implants only

Based on the laboratory and statistical review, the TGA has proposed regulatory action in relation to a number of textured implants only. Those proposed regulatory actions are either a proposal to cancel or a proposal to suspend. The TGA has also imposed new conditions on the inclusion of a number of other textured implants in the Register.

The TGA has notified each of the sponsors of the relevant proposed regulatory action (or imposition of conditions, where conditions have been imposed) on 9 July 2019.

It is important to understand that the proposed cancellations and suspensions set out below are proposed. No decision has been made to suspend or cancel the relevant products at this time.

The next steps are for the sponsors to respond to the TGA’s notification and invitation to comment by 24 July 2019. The TGA will, as a matter of priority, consider the sponsor’s submissions before reaching any decision on whether to proceed to the proposed regulatory action.

More information will follow after the TGA has had an opportunity to finalise its deliberations.

The TGA is providing breast implant recipients, the wider public and medical practitioners, this information identifying the breast implants, mammary implants or tissue expanders affected by the identified proposed regulatory action in the interests of public health and safety. This publication also communicates the preliminary outcomes from the extensive body of laboratory testing and statistical analysis carried out by TGA over the last 2 months.

If you have concerns, please speak with your medical practitioner. The proposed regulatory actions for particular products and the affected brand(s) of implants are as follows:

Proposed Cancellation

Sponsor (Manufacturer)

ARTG Number

Product Name

Allergan Australia Pty Ltd

169956

Natrelle Double Lumen Gel/Saline Breast Implants

171387

Natrelle Truform Dual gel, Textured Single Lumen Breast

171388

Natrelle Saline-filled, Textured Breast Implants

171475

Natrelle Soft Touch, Truform 2 gel, Textured, Single Lumen Breast Implants

171512

Natrelle Truform 3 gel, Textured Single Lumen Breast Implants

175420

Natrelle Truform1 gel, Textured, Single Lumen Breast Implants

175422

Natrelle INSPIRA Truform 1 gel, Textured, Single Lumen Breast implants

175425

Natrelle INSPIRA Truform 2 gel, Textured Single lumen Breast Implants

175797

Natrelle Tissue Expanders

If the entries of the above products are cancelled, the products would no longer be able to be imported, manufactured or exported from Australia by the sponsor. The TGA is also proposing to require the sponsor to recall the products to remove all remaining products from the market.  The recall would only apply to product that is waiting to be implanted. There is not a recommendation to surgeons to remove implants in the absence of a BIA-ALCL diagnosis.

Proposed Suspension (on the basis that it is likely that there are grounds for cancelling the entries of the products)

Sponsor (Manufacturer)

Device Number

Product Name

Adirel Consolidated Pty Ltd T/A Surgiplas Medical

(Nagor)

142863

Nagor Mammary Implants Gel-filled-TEXTURED

277757

9-cell CoGel gel-filled Nagor mammary implant range – textured

277758

Impleo gel-filled Nagor mammary implant range - textured

Emagin Pty Ltd (Groupe Sebbin SAS)

309613

Anatomical Breast Implants – Textured – High Cohesive Gel

Emergo Asia Pacific Pty Ltd T/a Emergo Australia (AirXpanders)

216704

Aeroform Patient Controlled Tissue Expander

Euro Implants Pty Ltd (Eurosilicone SAS)

132040

Cristaline I Aptex/Vertex Paragel Natural Cohesive Gel Implant

132037

Cristaline Paragel Cohesive Gel Implant

JT Medical Pty Ltd (Polytech Health & Aesthetics GmbH)

171782

Sublime Line, Microthane, Silicone gel filled Mammary Implants

185060

4Two Line, Single Lumen, Micro Polyurethane, Silicone gel filled Mammary Implants

Johnson & Johnson Medical Pty Ltd (Mentor Medical Systems BV)

110588

Siltex Round Cohesive I

110589

Siltex Round Cohesive II

110592

Siltex Round Becker Cohesive I

119809

Siltex Contour Becker Cohesive II

130678

Siltex Contour Gel Breast Implants Cohesive III

226977

Mentor® CPX™4 Breast Tissue Expander

226982

Mentor® CPX™4 with Suture Tabs Breast Tissue Expander

If the entries of the above products are suspended, the products would no longer be able to be imported, manufactured or exported from Australia by the sponsor for the duration of the suspension. A suspension can be revoked if concerns about the products are addressed to the TGA’s satisfaction. Alternatively, where concerns persist the duration of the suspension may be extended or the entries of the products may be cancelled. If any of the products are suspended, it is proposed to recall all remaining product to remove it from the market. The recall would only apply to product that is waiting to be implanted surgically. There is not a recommendation to surgeons to remove implants in the absence of a BIA-ALCL diagnosis.

Imposition of conditions – patient information leaflet

To support informed patient choices, the TGA has imposed a condition on the ARTG entries of the products in the table below that the sponsors are to make available to patients a patient information leaflet that includes information about the therapeutic good including warnings and risks associated with the product.

Sponsor (Manufacturer)

Device Number

Product Name

Allergan Australia Pty Ltd

(Allergan)

218869

BRST Round Microcell Textured Responsive gel filled breast implant

220900

BRST Round Microcell Textured Cohesive gel filled breast implants

Emagin Pty Ltd (Groupe Sebbin SAS)

309614

Textured, Round , Firm, High Cohesive Gel Mammary Implant

309615

Textured, Round, Soft Classic, Cohesive Gel, Mammary Implants

JT Medical Pty Ltd (Polytech Health & Aesthetics GmbH)

171783

Sublime Line, Textured, silicone gel filled Mammary Implants

185059

4Two Line, Single Lumen, Textured, Silicone gel filled Mammary Implants

Reminder: next steps

The TGA is required by law to provide the sponsors of affected implants with an opportunity to make submissions in response to proposed regulatory action. The TGA will then take into consideration each sponsor’s submission  when deciding what, if any, regulatory action should be taken in relation to particular sponsor’s device(s). 

Sponsors were notified of the TGA's preliminary view on 9 July 2019 and have been given until 24 July to respond. The TGA will then evaluate the submissions as a priority, and more information on regulatory actions will follow.

At this time relevant products will continue to be included on the ARTG (i.e. approved by TGA) and available for use in Australia.

BIA-ALCL is more likely to occur in rougher surfaced implants, and the TGA is proposing to either cancel or suspend particular products. There are alternative smooth implants available and these have not been associated with known cases of ALCL in Australia.

Because the risk to women who already have these implants is very low, experts do not recommend that women who already have them need to have them removed unless there is a confirmed diagnosis of ALCL.

The proposed action by the TGA does not change this advice. If you have concerns you should speak to your surgeon.

Consumers with concerns about their breast implants can access information about BIA-ALCL, its symptoms and treatments through the TGA's breast implant hub.

Previous updates

The TGA has commenced its review and laboratory assessment of the surface topography of samples received from the sponsors of breast implants in Australia. A team of engineers and scientists will undertake over 2,000 sets of measurements of more than 150 samples as part of the assessment.

In addition, statistical analysis of information regarding the supply of breast implants in Australia and the known cases of BIA-ALCL will occur in parallel to better estimate the risks associated for each type of implant. This includes working with the Australian Breast Device Registry (ABDR) to ensure that we are aware of as many cases of BIA-ALCL as possible.

Based on the outcomes of the testing and statistical analysis, we anticipate that a decision on whether regulatory action will be undertaken relating to specific implants will be made in mid-June.

Discussions and information sharing with other international regulatory agencies including those from the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Japan, France and New Zealand are ongoing.

To support Australian women, information on signs and symptoms of BIA-ALCL, and a range of questions that women considering a breast implant procedure should ask their surgeon is available on our web site. In addition, we are seeking further guidance from consumer representatives on how to improve the dissemination of this information.

Consumers and health professionals are advised that since the statement on 11 January 2019, the TGA has received more confirmed cases of BIA-ALCL in Australian patients, with a total of 78 cases reported to us to date, which includes four deaths.

Consumers and health professionals are strongly encouraged to report problems with medical devices to the TGA and for breast implants also to the ABDR. Your report will contribute to the monitoring and evaluation of these products.

The TGA convened its breast implant expert working group on 8 April. This followed decisions taken by regulators in France and Canada to remove selected textured implants from their market.

The expert working group discussed the current data on breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) rates and correlation with type of implant. The group identified gaps in the data currently available to inform an assessment of the true rate of BIA-ALCL in Australia particularly with different grades of texture of the implants.

The TGA takes the potential risk to women's health seriously. We have today written to all Australian suppliers of textured breast implants with a formal request for information under section 42 of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989.

This includes the provision of data on the date when particular implants were first supplied to the Australian market and how many have been supplied so as to develop a clearer understanding of the rates of BIA-ALCL in specific types of implant. Samples of particular products have also been requested by the TGA.

Suppliers have 10 working days to responds to the request for information. After receiving information from suppliers TGA will consider whether to suspend or cancel particular products from the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods.

Other regulators, including the US FDA and several European regulators, have also deferred making a decision until more data is available.

The expert group confirmed that the breast implant associated cancer is rare. As of 8 April 2019 the TGA has received 76 reports for BIA-ALCL in Australian women, noting that between 13,000-17,000 breast implant procedures are performed in Australia each year.

The group also discussed the benefits of textured implants, particularly for reconstructive breast surgery and the need to:

  • update the TGA website with accurate information about the benefits and risks of different types of implants
  • strongly encourage the use of the Australian Breast Device Registry, including for recording details of removal of implants and of BIA-ALCL cases
  • continue to support patients and surgeons to report all adverse events to the TGA.

Today, the TGA will also update its website with further information including information on signs and symptoms of BIA-ALCL and a range of questions that women considering a breast implant procedure should ask their surgeon.

Women with any concerns about their implants should contact their surgeon.

Consumers and health professionals are advised that since the statement below was published, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has confirmed more cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in Australian patients, with a total of 76 cases reported to date.

The previous advice outlined in the 'Information for consumers' and 'Information for health professionals' sections below remains current, and will be updated as new information becomes available.

Information relating to the withdrawal of Allergan textured implants from Europe is contained in the 'TGA statement' and will also be updated as new information becomes available.

Consumers and health professionals are advised that since the statement below was published, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has confirmed more cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in Australian patients, with a total of 72 cases reported to date.

The previous advice outlined in the 'Information for consumers' and 'Information for health professionals' sections below remains current, and will be updated as new information becomes available.

Consumers and health professionals are advised that since the statement below was published, the TGA has confirmed more cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in Australian patients, with a total of 56 cases reported to date.

The Medical Journal of Australia last month published an article discussing anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the context of the Australian Breast Device Registry and advocating strategies to strengthen the registry.

The Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Journal in May published an epidemiological study of patients in Australia and New Zealand.

The US Food and Drug Administration also published an update regarding this issue on 23 March 2017.

Accordingly in the 'How can the risk be reduced?' section of 'Information for health professionals' contained within our original statement below, our advice regarding pocket irrigation has been updated slightly.

As part of the TGA's ongoing monitoring of the association between breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), consumers and health professionals are advised that an expert advisory panel was convened to discuss the issue on 16 November 2016 and has been providing ongoing advice.

The expert advisory panel included representation from plastic surgeons, cosmetic surgeons, breast-cancer surgeons, cancer epidemiologists, data analysts and public-health practitioners. The panel's advice is outlined in the 'Information for consumers' and 'Information for health professionals' sections below.

Breast implant-associated ALCL is a rare type of lymphoma that develops near breast implants. The TGA published safety communications regarding this issue on 27 January 2011 and 27 September 2016.

Since our last safety communication, the TGA has been provided with additional data and is advising that 46 cases of breast implant-associated ALCL have now been confirmed in Australia, including three that resulted in death. These cases have all occurred since 2007. Most cases of breast implant-associated ALCL are cured by removal of the implant and the capsule surrounding the implant, however a small number are more aggressive.

The TGA is also aware of a small number of unconfirmed cases. These are being investigated. Consumers and health professionals are asked to report any suspected cases to the TGA.

Future TGA actions

  • The TGA will work with research groups to obtain better estimates of the risk of breast implant-associated ALCL.[1]
  • The TGA will work with manufacturers, Australian experts on breast implant-associated ALCL, and Australian experts on breast augmentation and reconstructive surgery to evaluate the benefit-risk balance of the various types of breast implants.
  • The TGA will continue to liaise with its major overseas regulatory partners and collaborate in international working groups.

Information for consumers

The expert advisory panel has provided the following 'Q&A':

Breast implant-associated ALCL is a rare type of cancer.

It usually involves a swelling of the breast, typically 3 to 14 years after the operation to insert the breast implant. This swelling is due to an accumulation of fluid. Breast implant-associated ALCL has been known to occur as soon as 1 year after the operation and as late as 37 years after the operation.

Less commonly, breast implant-associated ALCL can take the form of a lump in the breast or a lump in the armpit.

If you notice any of these problems (swelling or a lump), or have any other concerns with your implants, you should seek medical attention.

Most cases of breast implant-associated ALCL are cured by removal of the implant and the capsule surrounding the implant.

Based on the currently available data, it is not possible to provide an accurate estimate of risk. Current expert opinion puts the risk of ALCL at between 1-in-1,000 and 1-in-10,000. Based on currently available data, most (95%) of cases of breast implant-associated ALCL occur between 3 and 14 years after the implant (median: 8 years; range: 1-37 years).

It can be difficult to express this risk in a concrete way, such that you can make a fully informed decision about whether or not to have a breast implant. Some different ways of expressing the risk are given below:

  • One woman will be diagnosed with breast implant-associated ALCL for every 1000 to 10,000 women with breast implants.
  • Suppose we took 1-in-5000 women, the middle of the experts' range, as the best estimate of risk of ALCL in women who have breast implants. This would mean that, of 5000 women with implants, one woman will develop ALCL over a period of about 3-14 years following an implant; the other 4999 women will not develop ALCL.

Because breast implant-associated ALCL is rare, experts do not recommend removal of breast implants for women who have no problems with the implant. If you are concerned you should discuss your options with your doctor.

Generally, breast implants are not lifetime devices regardless of breast implant-associated ALCL. Typically they are removed after 10-15 years. The longer you have the implant, the more likely it will need to be removed. Common reasons for removal are contracture (hard or painful implants) or movement of the implant.

If you develop swelling of an implanted breast your doctor will send you for an ultrasound scan to see if this is due to a fluid collection. If fluid is present it will be removed and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Most fluid collections are not ALCL, but the laboratory test will be able to tell for sure. Mammograms are not helpful for diagnosing ALCL.

Other investigations such as MRI and CT-scans would typically be done if the laboratory analysis of the fluid confirms a diagnosis of ALCL.

Based on external expert clinical advice received by the TGA, regular screening is not recommended at this time.

If you notice enlargement or swelling of one or both breasts, or a lump, you should seek medical advice as soon as possible.

Breast implant-associated ALCL can develop regardless of whether the implant is inserted for cosmetic reasons or for reconstruction of the breast following breast cancer.

It can occur with both saline and silicone gel filled implants.

To date:

  • No Australian cases have been reported in women who have only had smooth implants.
  • All Australian cases have occurred in women who have had textured or polyurethane implants.

Based on the currently available data:

  • It is uncertain whether textured (either micro or macro) and polyurethane implants carry different risks.
  • It is uncertain whether different brands of textured and polyurethane implants carry different risks.
  • It is not possible to predict which women with textured or polyurethane implants will develop breast implant-associated ALCL.

Most cases are cured by removal of the implant and capsule surrounding the implant. Usually your doctor will remove both implants, even if breast implant-associated ALCL has only occurred in one breast. This is because there is a small but real risk that breast implant-associated ALCL can develop in the opposite breast. Sometimes there is a solid lump (not just fluid). In these cases, chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be required.

Over the last 10 years, three Australian women have died from breast implant-associated ALCL.

The management of breast implant-associated-ALCL is multidisciplinary with all patients requiring a referral to a surgeon experienced with breast implants and the involvement of a haematologist who specialises in lymphoma, for initial and ongoing investigations and management.

The TGA has been monitoring BIA-ALCL since 2011 after receiving the first adverse event report in 2009. It established an expert working group in 2016 to seek advice on BIA-ALCL. The working group includes plastic surgeons, cosmetic surgeons, breast-cancer surgeons, cancer epidemiologists, data analysts, public -health practitioners and consumers.

The TGA has worked with this group to develop targeted information for consumers and health professionals.

The introduction of a new requirement for Patient Information Leaflets for implantable devices commencing in 2018 enhances patient access to information.

There are a range of types of textured breast implants supplied in Australian. By compelling suppliers to provide additional information specific to the Australian market, the TGA can make well informed decisions about safety of particular types of implants. Suppliers have 10 working days to respond to the request for information. After receiving this information the TGA will consider action to suspend or cancel particular products.

The decision by the French regulator appears to be based on events described to them from patients and doctors as well as data published about three implants, which has been extrapolated to other products. Other regulators, including those in the US, Germany and the UK are also seeking additional evidence on the risk of BIA-ALCL, and we are working closely with these regulators.

Patients who have breast implants should expect that the regulator makes decisions based on sound scientific and medical evidence.

Textured implants of varying roughness are used in 82% of operations in Australia. They play an important role in reconstructive surgery. Smooth implants are an alternative but they may require a higher rate of replacement reoperation due to greater rates of contracture of these implant.

The international consensus is that there is no evidence supporting the removal of breast implants in the absence of properly diagnosed BIA-ALCL.

Information for health professionals

Based on advice from Australian experts in cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery, cancer epidemiology, and lymphoma (i.e., the expert advisory panel), the TGA is providing the following information to health professionals. Because breast implant-associated ALCL (BIA-ALCL) is rare, various aspects of this disease are not fully characterised. A more complete picture is expected over coming years. Health professionals should keep themselves apprised of the latest evidence.

The expert advisory panel has provided the following 'Q&A':

This is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In 2016, the WHO classified breast implant-associated ALCL as a distinct clinical entity, separate from other categories of ALCL.[2]

Unique characteristics include:

  • being purely T-cell
  • having no anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene translocation (ALK-)
  • being CD30 receptor protein positive on immunohistochemistry
  • being in close anatomical association with a breast implant.

The possibility of breast implant-associated ALCL should be included in informed consent. The disease is rare. A one-number estimate of the risk is not possible with the currently available data. Current expert opinion is that the risk is between 1-in-1000 and 1-in-10,000 women with implants. Most cases occur between 3 and 14 years after insertion of the implant (median: 8 years; range: 1-37 years).

Based on the currently available data, breast implant-associated ALCL does not seem to occur when only smooth implants are used. All Australian cases to date have occurred in women with textured or polyurethane implants.

Women with implants should be made aware of the common presenting symptoms: delayed effusion/seroma or, less commonly, a mass or lymphadenopathy.

Based on the current epidemiological evidence, the expert panel advised the TGA that breast implants were likely to be a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of breast implant-associated ALCL. The expert panel's reasoning included:

  • the ALCL cells occur in close proximity to the implant
  • breast implant-associated ALCL is a distinct clinical entity, separate from other categories of ALCL2
  • ALCL, with the distinct features of breast implant-associated-ALCL (e.g., ALK-negative, CD30-positive, typical clinical course), has not been reported in the absence of an implant.

The expert panel emphasised that, as with other cancers, the complete set of causal factors is unknown.[3] To date, no patient-specific susceptibility factors, which might help predict risk, have been identified.

The currently available data suggest that the risk might be reduced by using smooth implants.

In addition, a hypothesis currently in favour, but not proven, is that T-cell stimulation due to a chronic bacterial biofilm infection increases the risk of ALCL developing. Therefore, standard-of-care precautions, such as antibiotic prophylaxis, pocket irrigation, sterility, and skin preparation should be maintained when placing an implant. It is also hypothesised that such precautions would have the additional benefit of reducing the risk of contracture.

A group of Australian breast implant researchers have made the following recommendations:[4]

  1. Use intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of anaesthetic induction.
  2. Avoid periareolar incisions; these have been shown in both laboratory and clinical studies to lead to a higher rate of contracture as the pocket dissection is contaminated directly by bacteria within the breast tissue.
  3. Use nipple shields to prevent spillage of bacteria into the pocket.
  4. Perform careful atraumatic dissection to minimise devascularised tissue.
  5. Perform careful haemostasis.
  6. Avoid dissection into the breast parenchyma. The use of a dual-plane, subfascial pocket has anatomic advantages.
  7. Perform pocket irrigation (refer to hospital or health department guidelines).
  8. Use an introduction sleeve. We have recommended the use of a cut-off surgical glove to minimise skin contact.
  9. Use new instruments and drapes, and change surgical gloves prior to handling the implant.
  10. Minimise the time of implant opening.
  11. Minimise repositioning and replacement of the implant.
  12. Use a layered closure.
  13. Avoid using a drainage tube, which can be a potential site of entry for bacteria.
  14. Use antibiotic prophylaxis to cover subsequent procedures that breach skin or mucosa.

For women who already have implants, the current consensus of expert opinion is that screening or prophylactic removal in asymptomatic patients is not recommended.

The main method of investigation is ultrasound evaluation to confirm the presence and extent of an effusion, determine if there is presence of a mass, and evaluate regional lymph node basins for lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (+/- or core biopsy) of an effusion (mass) is performed and the aspirate (tissue) sent, for cytology (histology) and flow cytometry +/- molecular studies, for confirmation of the diagnosis of breast implant-associated ALCL. PET/CT and MRI are reserved for confirmed cases. There does not appear to be a role for mammography.[5]

The management of this condition is multidisciplinary and all patients require a referral to a surgeon experienced with breast implants and the involvement of a haematologist who specialises in lymphoma, for initial and ongoing investigations and management.

Curative treatment for most women is removal of the implant and oncological capsulectomy, which includes complete resection of any mass associated with the capsule. Contralateral breast implants should be removed with complete capsulectomy because several bilateral cases have been detected incidentally. Both the capsule and fluid should be sent for pathology.[5]

Most diagnosed cases are adequately treated with complete capsulectomy and implant removal. However, aggressive variants have been reported. To date, three deaths have occurred in Australia.

References

  1. Knight R et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) in Australia & New Zealand. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Global Open 2016;4(9S):82-83.
  2. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Pileri SA et al. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organisation classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Blood 2016; 127(2):2375-2390
  3. Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Causation and causal inference in epidemiology. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(Suppl 1):S144-S151.
  4. Deva AK, Adams WP, Jr., Vickery K. The role of bacterial biofilms in device-associated infection. Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;132(5):1319-1328.
  5. American Society of Plastic Surgeons FAQ. www.thepsf.org/Documents/Clinical/PROFILE/profile-faq.pdf (pdf,2.46Mb).

Reporting problems

Consumers and health professionals are encouraged to report problems with medical devices. Your report will contribute to the TGA's monitoring of these products. For more information see the TGA Incident Reporting and Investigation Scheme (IRIS).

The TGA cannot give advice about an individual's medical condition. You are strongly encouraged to talk with a health professional if you are concerned about a possible adverse event associated with a medical device