Codeine information hub: Codeine harm and efficacy literature

Related information

16 November 2017
Codeine-related deaths have more than doubled between 2000 and 2009


  • Chang AK, Bijur PE, Esses D, Barnaby DP, Baer J (2017) 'Effect of a Single Dose of Oral Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics on Acute Extremity Pain in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial', JAMA, Vol. 318 (17), 1661-1667.
    • Key findings: Nonopioid analgesics are just as effective as opioid analgesics in adult ED patients suffering from acute extremity pain. Due to the different mechanisms of action, the combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol provide additional analgesic effects and reduces the short-term risk of adverse events.
  • AMA, Australian Medicine Special Edition, 'The facts about codeine: AMA backs the independence of the TGA', October 2017.
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017, National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: detailed findings. Drug Statistics series no. 31. Cat. No. PHE 214. Canberra: AIHW
  • Mill D, Johnson J, Cook V, Monaghan E and Hotham E (2017) 'Counting the cost of over-the-counter codeine containing analgesic misuse: A retrospective review of hospital admissions over a 5 year period', Drug and Alcohol Review, DOI" 10.1111/dar.12595.


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