Presentation: Evaluation Panel Roadshow - Overview of Clinical Evaluations

TGA presentations: Evaluation Panel Roadshow, November 2017

8 December 2017


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  • Presented by: Clinical Evaluation Sections, Prescription Medicines Authorisation Branch
  • Presented at: Therapeutic Goods Evaluation Panel Information Sessions
  • Presentation date: November 2017
  • Presentation summary: Evaluation Panel Roadshow information for prospective evaluators for the TGA


External Evaluations of prescription medicines

Clinical Evaluation Sections, Prescription Medicines Authorisation Branch

Therapeutic Goods Evaluation Panel Information Sessions, November 2017

Slide 1 - Overview

  • Role of the TGA
    • Where the TGA fits into drug development and the health system
    • Structure of the TGA’s Clinical Evaluation Sections
  • Types of applications
    • The Dossier
  • The Clinical Evaluation
    • Role of the clinical evaluator
    • How is the Clinical Evaluation Report (CER) used
    • The CER Template
    • What makes a good clinical evaluation
    • Guidelines
    • Evaluation Timelines
    • Interaction with the TGA
  • Resources

Slide 2 - Role of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)

  • National regulator of therapeutic goods
    • Therapeutic Goods Act 1989
    • Regulates medicines, devices and biologicals
  • Medicines include:
    • Prescription medicines
    • OTC medicines
    • Complementary medicines
  • Regulation of medicines is broadly divided into:
    • Pre-market regulation
    • Post-market regulation

Slide 3 - The TGA in context

  • Pharmaceutical companies (‘sponsors’)
    • Drug discovery, quality / manufacturing aspects, non-clinical studies, clinical studies (Phases I-IV)
  • The TGA
    • A therapeutic good must be registered before becoming generally available
    • The TGA:
      • receives applications from sponsors to register medicines
      • assesses quality, safety and efficacy data provided by the sponsor
      • makes a decision to approve or reject an application, within a set period of time
  • The PBS
    • Reimbursement of medicines is not considered by the TGA
  • Clinical use

Slide 4 - Structure of the TGA’s Clinical Evaluation Sections

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6
Infectious diseases
Radiopharmaceuticals, contrast agents, etc
Male reproductive
Oncology Endocrinology
Fluids and electrolytes

Slide 5 - Application type

New ARTG entry (s23)

Variation to existing ARTG entry (s9D)

New chemical/biological entities (NCEs)
Application type A
New fixed combination
Application type B
Extension of indication
Application type C
New generic medicine
Application type D
New dosage form,
Application type F
etc Product information (PI) change, requiring evaluation of clinical non-clinical or bioequivalence date, application type J Other variation, requiring evaluation of clinical, nonclinical or bioequivalence data, application type H

Slide 6 - The Dossier (I)

Module Content Relevance for clinical evaluator
1 Administrative Information Cover letter!
Product Information!
RMP (find ‘Safety Specification’)
Justifications for absence of data
Overseas registration status
2 Summaries Good general overview – from sponsor’s view!
3 Quality i.e. chemistry / biology / quality controls / manufacturing -
4 Nonclinical data i.e. in vitro data, in vivo animal pharmacology and toxicology data -

Slide 7 - The Dossier (II)

in Dossier; evaluated
not in Dossier; evaluated e.g. relevant journal articles
in Dossier; not evaluated e.g. efficacy data from studies in patient populations not covered by the indication
not in Dossier; not evaluated (but informative…) e.g. relevant information from past applications; reviews by overseas regulators; literature reviews

Slide 8 - The Dossier (III)

  • The size of the Dossier varies from application to application:
    • NCE Dossiers are generally large
    • New indication Dossiers may have only one clinical study (but might have more)
  • The CER will vary in size accordingly
    • The template guidance discusses the optimal size of the report
  • The Dossier is fully electronic so there are some IT requirements for the evaluator

Slide 9 - Role of the clinical evaluator

  • To evaluate clinical aspects of the application and write a Clinical Evaluation Report (CER)
  • The Clinical Evaluation Report:
    • Summarises AND CRITICALLY APPRAISES the clinical data
      • EFFICACY
      • SAFETY
    • Asks questions about clinical data, to be answered by the sponsor; and evaluates answers
    • Provides recommendations to the TGA decision-maker about:
      • Whether the drug should be approved or rejected
      • Whether the Product Information is acceptable
  • The clinical evaluator DOES NOT:
    • Evaluate non-clinical data
    • Evaluate quality data
    • Evaluate cost-effectiveness
    • Make a final decision about registration

Slide - 10 How is the CER used? (I)

  • The report is used by many parties:
    • The DELEGATE (i.e. the decision-maker, who is a senior medical officer in the TGA)
    • Other sections of the TGA (e.g. chemistry, toxicology, Risk Management Plan areas)
    • Used for evaluations of future applications
    • Submitted to Advisory Committee on Medicines and read by committee members
    • Sent to the sponsor, where it is reviewed in detail
    • Part of AusPAR on TGA website
    • Possibly, other (international) regulators
  • Thus, needs to be of high standard and able to withstand scrutiny

Slide 11 - How is the CER used? (II)

Flowchart illustrating 3 steps on how the DECISION OF THE DELEGATE for the given application is used for the CER

Slide 12 - The CER Template (I)

  • There is a template to aid with writing the Clinical Evaluation Report
  • There is a guidance document that accompanies the template (this is very helpful!)
  • There is a single template that covers CERs for all application types, so it may appear quite complex – BUT not all parts are relevant to every application
    • For example, an ‘extension of indications’ application might not have any pharmacology data

Slide 13 - The CER Template (II)

  • There is a template to aid with writing the Clinical Evaluation Report
  • There is a guidance document that accompanies the template (this is very helpful!)
  • There is a single template that covers CERs for all application types, so it may appear quite complex – BUT not all parts are relevant to every application
    • For example, an ‘extension of indications’ application might not have any pharmacology data

Slide 14 - The CER Template (III) pharmacology

  • The main headings of the template are:
    • Submission details
    • Background
    • Contents of the clinical dossier
    • Pharmacokinetics
    • Pharmacodynamics
    • Dosage selection
    • Clinical efficacy
    • Clinical safety
    • 1st round benefit / risk and recommendations on registration / PI
    • Clinical questions (to sponsor)
    • 2nd round evaluation
    • 2nd round benefit / risk and recommendations on registration / PI

Slide 15 - The CER Template (IV) – efficacy

  • Pharmacokinetics
    • ADME
    • Special populations (e.g. hepatic impairment)
    • Drug interactions
    • Population PK
    • Pharmacodynamics
    • Mechanism of action
    • Exposure-response
    • NCE applications may contain many pharmacology studies
  • For some areas, e.g. Population PK, separate expert advice may be required

Slide 16 - The CER Template (V) – safety

The type of safety information available from a clinical trial typically includes:

  • Exposure to the medicine of interest
  • Adverse Events (AEs)
    • overall incidence
    • treatment-related AEs
    • mild, moderate, severe, life-threatening
  • Deaths and Serious Adverse Events (SAEs)
  • Discontinuations due to AEs and SAEs
  • Vital signs
  • Laboratory test abnormalities

Look carefully for issues such as:

  1. Liver injury
  2. Bone marrow toxicity
  3. Skin manifestations
  4. QT prolongation

Slide 17 - The CER Template (VI) – benefit / risk

  • Assessment of benefits
    • Strengths and uncertainties
  • Assessment of risks
    • Strengths and uncertainties
  • Limitations of data
    • E.g. external validity of trial, use in real world
  • Benefit / risk balance
  • Recommendations regarding authorisation
  • Recommendations regarding PI/CMI and RMP (safety specifications)

Slide 18 - The CER Template (VII) – Product Information

  • A Product Information document (PI) provides health professionals with a summary of the scientific information relevant to the safe and effective use of a prescription medicine.
  • Wording is proposed by sponsor
  • Needs evaluation
    • E.g. indications

    The therapeutic applications should be stated clearly and concisely, and should define the target disease or condition, distinguishing between treatment (symptomatic, curative or modifying the evolution or progression of the disease), prevention (primary or secondary) and diagnostic indications. Mandatory conditions of product usage, where relevant, should also be included if not covered more appropriately in other parts of the PI.

    • E.g. Precautions
    • E.g. dosage and administration
  • Published on TGA website / new app

Slide 19 - What makes a good Clinical Evaluation Report?

  • Discuss if and why EU or FDA did not approve the medicine, or major differences in the PIs
  • Highlighting discrepancies, gaps in reporting, safety or potential safety signals, missing data
  • If recommending rejection - write the reasons clearly in dot points
  • Ensure all Module 5 data is evaluated
  • Your report is an independent assessment of the clinical data.
  • We are very interested in your thorough assessment of the Product Information and CMI documents

Slide 20 - EU GuidelinesSlide

  • The TGA closely aligns its regulatory approaches to therapeutic products with those of comparable international regulatory counterparts wherever possible.
  • Technical data requirements for applications to register or vary the registration of prescription medicines in Australia are closely aligned with requirements set out in relevant European Union (EU) Guidelines and Guidelines issued by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use.
  • Scientific guidelines

Slide 21 - Evaluation Timelines

  • Give yourself enough time – don’t leave it to the last minute!
  • Know when the report is due back to the TGA – consider both Round 1 AND Round 2
  • Allocate sufficient time to aspects such as: weighing benefit / risk; PI review; formatting / editing; etc
  • Allow time to submit a draft report and receive feedback on it
  • Round 1 is maximum 3 months
  • Round 2 is maximum 1 month

gant chart showing the regulartory phases and milestones.

Slide 22 - Interaction with the TGA

Contact person from Clinical Evaluation Section – often the Delegate for the application

Support from External Evaluation team (e.g. IT issues)

If you have questions or just want to talk through an issue – talk to the delegate or member of the team

Feedback will be provided on your draft report, and changes may be required

Slide 23 - Other resources

Resources that may be sent to you with the Dossier:

  • EU Guidelines
  • Overseas reports
  • Previous TGA reports and advisory committee meeting outcomes – as identified by the Delegate

Other resources you may wish to use

  • Publications
  • Clinical guidelines (e.g. for evidence of standard of care

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